Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD is a mental disorder that causes a child to find it difficult to focus and has impulsive and hyperactive behavior, so it can have an impact on children's achievements in school.

inattentive adhd

Until now, the main cause of ADHD is not yet known with certainty. However, this condition is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. In addition to children, ADHD can also occur in adults.

Symptoms of ADHD

ADHD symptoms are usually seen since children's time. ADHD symptoms in children generally arise from the age of 3 years and will look increasingly striking as children age, especially when children enter school or at the beginning of puberty. Even so, the new ADHD symptom can be seen when sufferers are adults.

Symptoms of ADHD in children

The main symptom of ADHD is difficulty focusing and showing hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Normal when children are sometimes difficult to focus or behave impulsively. But in ADHD children, these behaviors appear more often and worse, to influence their achievements in schools and social interactions with other children.

Most ADHD sufferers experience these two symptoms, although sometimes only one symptom is visible. For example in children who have not been in school, hyperactive symptoms will be more prominent. The following will be explained in more detail about the symptoms of ADHD in children:

It's hard to focus

The symptoms are in the form of difficulties in paying attention to the direction of others or lessons from the teacher. Example:

  • Don't focus on doing something.
  • His attention is easily distracted.
  • It often looks like not listening to talks or directions, even when invited to talk directly.
  • Don't pay attention to things details.
  • Careless.
  • Difficult to regulate the duties and activities that are lived.
  • It's hard to follow the instructions to do something.
  • Often the loss of goods used every day.
  • Don't like activities that need to focus, like doing homework.

If there are only these symptoms without hyperactive behavior, meaning that patients experience ADHD type inatentif.

Hyperactive and impulsive behavior

Examples of hyperactive and impulsive behavior are:

  • It's hard to stay quiet in his seat when attending a lesson in class.
  • The habit of moving body parts, especially the legs or hands, when sitting.
  • It's hard to do activities calmly.
  • Running or climbing something at the wrong time.
  • Often cut off other people's talks.
  • Talk too much.
  • Often disrupt the activities carried out by others.
  • Cannot be silent and always want to move.

Symptoms of ADHD in adults

ADHD symptoms are not only experienced by children but can also be experienced by adults. Adults suffering from ADHD were thought to have experienced ADHD in their childhood.

Hyperactive symptoms of ADHD will usually decrease as they get older. But on the contrary, symptoms difficult to focus on tend to get worse as they age.

Adult ADHD sufferers will experience problems in education and work, among others due to difficulties in determining priority and focusing. In addition, adult ADHD sufferers are also difficult to have friends or partners, because they tend to be urgent or easy emotion.

Causes of ADHD

The cause of ADHD is not yet known with certainty, but many studies show that ADHD can occur due to the combination of the following factors:

  • Descendants or genetic factors, namely having mothers, fathers, or siblings with ADHD or other mental disorders.
  • Premature birth, which is born before a gestation of 37 weeks.
  • Abnormalities in brain structures or functions.
  • Brain damage when in the womb.
  • Mothers use drugs, consume alcoholic drinks, or smoke during pregnancy.
  • Mother suffered stress when she was pregnant.
  • Exposure to toxins from the environment while childhood, for example, leads to exposure to paint.

ADHD diagnosis

Not all children who are difficult to concentrate and hyperactivity must have suffered ADHD. Healthy children are generally very active and often make their parents overwhelmed. Likewise with teenagers. Even though it looks like not listening to talks, impulsive behavior, and his attention is easily distracted, they don't necessarily suffer from ADHD.

ADHD is often not diagnosed because parents consider the symptoms that arise are normal behavior, so they do not check it to the doctor. Therefore, parents need to recognize the symptoms of ADHD and their differences with normal behavior in children.

ADHD diagnosis is quite difficult, so cooperation is needed from various parties. There is a series of physical and psychological examinations that will be carried out by pediatricians and psychiatrists. Besides the family, the school (especially teachers) should also be involved in this process. Not only in children, but the process of diagnosis of ADHD in adult sufferers is also relatively difficult.

Examination to diagnose ADHD includes interviews and physical examinations. The doctor will conduct an interview, both with children and with parents, teachers, and caregivers.

In general, this interview and examination aimed at:

  • Diagnose whether children suffer from ADHD.
  • Know the severity of the ADHD suffered by the child.
  • Knowing other diseases that cause symptoms experienced by children.
  • Knowing other mental disorders in children.

When to go to the doctor

Immediately consult a child to a doctor if he shows the symptoms of ADHD, which is difficult to focus and behave hyperactivity or impulsive.

The symptoms of ADHD are often difficult to distinguish from normal children's behavior. Therefore, parents should consult a doctor if they feel a child shows unnatural behavior.

Children who suffer from ADHD also need to be routinely examined by a doctor, so that the conditions of disease, symptoms, and response to treatment can continue to be monitored.

Handling ADHD

The combination of drugs and special therapy is the best step to handle ADHD. There is no shortcut to overcoming this condition. Handling ADHD requires readiness and commitment in terms of time, emotions, and finance.

Although it cannot be cured completely, ADHD can be handled with several types of drugs and therapies to relieve symptoms that arise, so that sufferers can undergo normal daily activities.

Handling with drugs

The drug that is commonly given for ADHD is methylphenidate. This drug works by balancing chemical compounds in the brain so that it can relieve the symptoms of ADHD.

Methylphenidate is safe for the consumption of children, but the doctor will still monitor treatment to be aware of the emergence of side effects, such as heart disorder. If the child experiences such side effects or is at high risk of experiencing it, then the doctor will provide other drugs which include:

  • Atomoxetine.
  • Amitriptyline.
  • The drug of the Alfa Agonist group, for example, Clonidine.

Handling through psychotherapy

ADHD sufferers need to get psychotherapy. In addition to handling ADHD, psychotherapy is also useful for overcoming other mental disorders that accompany ADHD, such as depression. The types of psychotherapy that can be an option are:

  • Cognitive or Cognitive Behavior Therapy Therapy (CBT)

Cognitive-behavioral therapy will help sufferers of ADHD to change their mindset and behavior when facing certain problems or situations.

  • Psychoedukasi therapy

ADHD sufferers will be invited to share stories in this therapy, such as their difficulties in overcoming the symptoms of ADHD. From this therapy, it is expected that sufferers can find the most suitable way to deal with these symptoms.

  • Social interaction training

This type of therapy can help sufferers of ADHD to understand proper social behavior in certain situations.

Parents, family, teachers, and caregivers of ADHD sufferers also need knowledge and guidance to be able to accompany sufferers. Therefore, they need to be given a special training program.

The material taught in this training includes how to apply the praise system to encourage children, how to punish children when behaving badly or roughly, and how to direct children's activities according to their abilities.

To help children control the symptoms of ADHD, parents can also apply a healthy lifestyle to children, among others:

  • Familiarize a healthy diet with nutritious food
  • Make sure the child is enough sleep and rest.
  • Limiting children's time in watching television, playing video games, and using a cellphone or computer.
  • Invite children to do a minimum physical activity of 60 minutes every day.

ADHD cannot be cured, but if it is diagnosed early and handled properly, the sufferer will be able to adapt to his condition and undergo normal daily activities.


ADHD sufferers who are not treated can experience the conditions below:

  • Having difficulty focusing on learning in class, so his academic achievement decreases.
  • Has a problem with interaction with peers and the surrounding environment.
  • It has a risk of consuming alcohol and abusing drugs while growing up.
  • Risk of injury while carrying out daily activities.
  • Feel inferiority.

According to several studies, ADHD sufferers are also at risk of experiencing other mental disorders, such as:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Prevention of ADHD

The appearance of ADHD in children cannot be prevented, but the risk of the emergence of this disorder can be reduced. To reduce the risk of ADHD, pregnant women cannot smoke, drink alcoholic drinks, and use drugs. In addition, keep children from cigarette smoke and exposure to toxic substances.

1 comment for "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder"

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