Brain Abscess

Brain Abscess

A brain abscess or cerebral abscess is a buildup of pus due to a brain infection. This condition can cause swelling to the brain. Brain abscess is often caused by bacterial or fungal infections in the brain triggered by head injury or infection in other body tissues that spread to the brain.

Brain Abscess

Brain abscess is often marked by the emergence of heavy headaches, fever, seizures, even awareness disorders. This condition is quite dangerous and requires fast and precise handling.

Causes of brain abscess

The main cause of brain abscesses is the presence of bacterial or fungal infections in brain tissue. This bacterial or fungal infection can come from direct infections in the brain, injury to the head, including the operating procedure in the brain, and the spread of infection in other organs through the blood.

The type of bacteria that most often causes a buildup of pus in the brain comes from the Bacteroides, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, or Enterobacter. While the other types of pathogens that most often cause the formation of brain abscesses are aspholished mushrooms or gondii toxoplasma parasites.

Several conditions can increase the risk of brain abscess, namely:

  • Having a weak immune system, for example, due to HIV / AIDS, Cancer, or using immunosuppressant drugs
  • Experiencing middle ear infections (otitis media), infection in ear bones (mastoiditis), sinusitis, tooth abscess, or meningitis
  • Suffering a head injury, skull fracture, or ever underwent surgery on the head
  • Suffer from pulmonary infection, endocarditis, infection in the abdominal cavity, pelvic infection, or skin infection
  • Suffer from congenital heart disease (PJB) or abnormalities in pulmonary blood vessels or pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas

Symptoms of brain abscess

Symptoms of brain abscess can vary depending on the size and location of the abscess. Symptoms that arise can develop slowly and quickly.

Here are some symptoms of brain abscess:

  • Continuous headache
  • Fever
  • Gag
  • Championship
  • The neck feels stiff
  • Nerve function disorders, such as muscle weakness, paralysis, and speech speech
  • Behavior change, like anxiety or dazed
  • Vision disorders, such as double vision, blurred, or opaque

When to go to the doctor

Immediately to the doctor if you experience the symptoms mentioned above, especially if severe headaches are accompanied by fever, seizures, and nerve function disorders. Brain abscesses must be handled quickly and precisely to prevent complications that threaten the lives of sufferers.

If you experience a disease that can increase the risk of brain abscess, such as sinusitis, meningitis, activities media, and the infection in the heart, follow the treatment given by the doctor until completion.

Brain abscess diagnosis

To diagnose brain abscess, the doctor will ask questions about complaints, symptoms, and history of the patient's disease and health. Then, the doctor will carry out a thorough physical examination, including a neurological examination (neurology).

The doctor will also carry out support checks to ensure the diagnosis and determine the causes of brain abscess. Some supporting checks will be carried out, namely:

  • Blood test, to detect signs of infection from the levels and number of blood cells
  • Scanning, such as X-ray, CT scan, or MRI, to find out the location and size of brain abscesses
  • Lumbar puncture, to identify pathogens, including types of bacteria causing brain abscesses
  • Biopsy, to identify changes in cells and networks in the brain, and to meet the pathogens causes brain abscesses
  • Blood culture checks, to find bacteria or fungi that cause brain abscess
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG), to determine the electrical activity in the brain, especially in patients with brain abscess who experience recurrent seizures

If brain abscess is suspected of being the spread of infections in other parts of the body, such as the respiratory tract, phlegm culture checks can be done to determine the type of bacteria or germs that infect the lungs.

Treatment of brain abscess

Brain abscess is a condition that needs to be handled as soon as possible. Brain abscess treatment will depend on the size, number, and type of bacteria or pathogen germs that cause abscesses in the brain.

In addition, treatment of brain abscesses is also carried out to relieve complaints and symptoms and prevent complications. Some of the treatment options that the doctor will do to handle brain abscess are:

Drugs

Drugs are given to overcome infections that cause brain abscesses and reduce complaints and symptoms experienced by the patient. Some types of drugs that will be provided by the doctor are:

  • Antibiotic or antifungal drugs, to overcome infections that cause brain abscesses, including to overcome brain abscess caused by toxoplasmosis
  • Diuretic and steroid drugs, to reduce intracranial pressure and swelling in the brain
  • Antionjang medicine, to overcome seizures that can occur in brain abscesses

Operation

The operation will be carried out if the size of the abscess is more than 2 cm or if the abscess is risky to break and damage the surrounding brain tissue. Operation is done by lifting abscess.

2 types of operations can be done to overcome brain abscesses, namely:

  • Simple Aspiration

Simple aspiration is done to get rid of pus that accumulates. This action is usually done with the help of a CT Scan (Stereotactic Aspiration) to ensure the abscess point.

  • Craniotomy.

Craniotomy procedures are carried out to fly abscesses from brain tissue, in this procedure, the doctor will lift a small portion of the skull (flap) to be able to access infected brain tissue. Followed by the process of appointment abscess.

After surgery, the patient will be hospitalized for some time so that his condition can continue to be monitored.

Complications of brain abscess

Brain abscesses have the potential to cause many complications, namely:

  • Abscess recurs again
  • Damage to the brain tissue
  • Epilepsy
  • Meningitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Mastoiditis or a bone infection behind the ear

Prevention of brain abscess

The way to prevent brain abscesses is to avoid conditions that can cause brain abscesses. Some ways that can be done are:

  • Conduct examination and treatment thoroughly if you have infectious diseases
  • Maintain health and hygiene of teeth and mouth, including by checking to the dentist regularly
  • Use a safety device, such as a helmet or head protector, while working in a risky environment creates a head injury
  • Living a healthy lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, consuming healthy food, and exercising regularly
  • Do not consume drugs carelessly

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